Economic Inequality across Italy and Europe, 1300-1800 (EINITE)


Principal Investigator: Guido Alfani

Dondena Researchers: Francesco Ammannati, Matteo Di Tullio, Roberta Frigeni, Héctor Garcìa Montero, Sergio Sardone, Davide De Franco

Associate Researchers: Fabrice Boudjaaba (CRH; Centre de Recherches Historiques) CNRS/Ecole des Hautes etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris, France), Carlos Santiago-Caballero (Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain), Wouter Ryckbosch (Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium)


Contract Type: ERC Starting Grant (grant agreement no.: 283802)

Project Funding: 995,400 Euros

Start Date: 1 January 2012

End Date: 31 December 2016


The aim of EINITE is to clarify the dynamics of economic inequality in Europe from the late Middle Ages through the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Very little data about economic inequality during such an early period is available today and what is usually involves only single years and/or small areas (usually only one city or village).

This project will change this situation entirely by building an extensive database of economic inequality, mainly of wealth (for which better documentation exists) and focusing on Italy from a wider European perspective. Most of the data will come from new archival research on Medieval and Early Modern sources. While the project will cover systematically the whole of the Italian peninsula, selected areas of Europe will also be researched, starting with England, France, the Low Countries and Spain. Furthermore, published data and existing databases from all over the continent will be collected for comparison.


ENITE activities will be organized around four main research questions:

  1. What is the long-term relationship between economic growth and inequality?

    This is the main question to which the others are all connected.

  2. What were the effects of plagues and other severe mortality crises on property structures?
  3. What is the underlying relationship between immigration and urban inequality?
  4. How was economic inequality perceived in the past, and how did its perception change over time?


The project will also help to explain the origin of the property structures and inequality levels on the eve of the Industrial Revolution. Then it will provide information relevant to the ‘Kuznets curve’ debate. Overall the project will lead to a better knowledge of economic inequality in the past, which is also expected to help explain recent developments in inequality levels in Europe and elsewhere.


Published Works

Alfani, G. and Di Tullio, M. 2019, The Lion's Share: Inequality and the Rise of the Fiscal State in Preindustrial Europe, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, link here

Alfani, G. 2019, “Wealth and Income Inequality in the long run of history”, in C. Diebolt and M. Hupert (eds.), Handbook of Cliometrics, Springer, forthcoming

Hong, L, Alfani, G., Bonetti, M. and Gigliarano, C. 2018, “giniinc: A Stata package for measuring inequality from incomplete income and survival data”, Stata Journal, 18(3), pp. 692-715

Alfani, G. 2017. “The rich in historical perspective. Evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca. 1300-1800)”, Cliometrica, 11(3), pp. 321-348.

Alfani, G. and Ammanati, F. 2017. “Long-term trends in economic inequality: the case of the Florentine State, ca. 1300-1800”, Economic History Review, 70 (4), pp. 1072-1102, open access at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/ehr.12471

Alfani, G. and Di Tullio, M. 2016. “Dinamiche di lungo periodo della disuguaglianza in Italia settentrionale: prime comparazioni”, in SISE, Innovare nella storia economica: temi, metodi, fonti, Fondazione Datini, pp. 369-396.

Alfani, G. and Frigeni, R. 2016. “Inequality (Un)perceived: The Emergence of a Discourse on Economic Inequality from the Middle Ages to the Age of Revolution”, Journal of European Economic History, 1/2016, pp. 21-66.

Alfani, G. and Ryckbosch, W. 2016. “Growing apart in early modern Europe? A comparison of inequality trends in Italy and the Low Countries, 1500–1800”, Explorations in Economic History, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eeh.2016.07.003, 62, pp. 143-153.

Alfani, G. 2015. “Economic inequality in northwestern Italy: A long-term view (fourteenth to eighteenth centuries)”, Journal of Economic History, 75 (4), pp. 1058-1096.

Ammannati, F. 2015. “La Peste Nera e la distribuzione della proprietà nella Lucchesia del tardo medioevo”, Popolazione e Storia, 2/2015, pp. 21-45.

Ammannati F., De Franco D., Di Tullio M. 2015. “Misurare la diseguaglianza economica nell’età preindustriale: un confronto fra realtà dell’Italia centro-settentrionale”, Rivista di Storia Economica, 31(3), pp. 309-339.

Frigeni, R. 2015. «Una mosca varrebbe più di tutto l’oro del mondo». Dinamiche semantiche di valor ed aestimatio nella riflessione etico-economica medievale sul giusto prezzo (XIII-XV secolo)”, Dianoia, 21, pp. 249-271.

Working papers

Alfani, G. 2016. The rich in historical perspective. Evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca. 1300-1800), IGIER Working Paper n. 571.

Alfani, G., and Di Tullio, M. 2015. Dinamiche di lungo periodo della disuguaglianza in Italia settentrionale: una nota di ricerca, Dondena Working Paper No. 71.

Alfani, G. and Ryckbosch, W. 2015. Was there a ‘Little Convergence’ in inequality? Italy and the Low Countries compared, ca. 1500-1800, IGIER Working Paper n. 557.

Ammannati, F. 2015. La distribuzione della proprietà nella Lucchesia del tardo Medioevo (sec. XIV-XV), Dondena Working Paper n. 73.

García-Montero, H. 2015. Long-term Trends in Wealth Inequality in Catalonia, 1400-1800: Initial Results, Dondena Working Paper n. 79.

Alfani, G., and Ammannati, F. 2014. Economic inequality and poverty in the very long run: The case of the Florentine State (late thirteenth-early nineteenth centuries), Dondena Working Paper No. 70.

Di Tullio, M. 2014. Cooperating against inequality? War and commons in Renaissance Lombardy, Dondena Working Paper No. 69.

Ryckbosch, W. 2014. Economic inequality and growth before the industrial revolution: A case study of the Low Countries (14th-19th centuries), Dondena Working Paper No. 67.

Alfani, G. 2014. Economic inequality in northwestern Italy: A long-term view (fourteenth to eighteenth centuries), Dondena Working Paper No. 61.

Ammannati, F., De Franco, D. and Di Tullio, M. 2014. Misurare la diseguaglianza economica nell’età preindustriale: un confronto fra realtà urbane dell’Italia centro-settentrionale, Dondena Working Paper No. 65.

Alfani, G. and Frigeni, R.  2013. Inequality (un)perceived: The emergence of a discourse on economic inequality from the Middle Ages to the Age of Revolutions, Dondena Working Paper No. 58.



25 November 2016, final EINITE Conference, Economic Inequality in Preindustrial Europe, Milan (Italy)

Download the program.

17-18 November 2016, workshop Economía, Poder, Materialidad y Desigualdad Social en la Península Ibérica (1400-1550), Vitoria (Spain)
Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Economic Inequality in Preindustrial Europe, 1300-1800. Findings from the EINITE project.

21-22 October 2016, Le disuguaglianze economiche nella storia, Brescia (Italy)
Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled La disuguaglianza economica nell’Italia preindustriale: dinamiche di lunghissimo periodo. Francesco Ammannati and Matteo Di Tullio presented a paper entitled Dinamiche di lungo periodo della disuguaglianza economica in età preindustriale: alcune comparazioni tra comunità degli antichi Stati Pontifici. Sergio Sardone also presented a paper entitled Disuguaglianza e disastri naturali nella Sicilia orientale: Ragusa e Misterbianco (secoli XVI-XVIII).

13 June 2016, CORN workshop (Ghent, Belgium)
Guido Alfani presented a paper, entitled Economic inequality across rural Italy and Europe, 1300-1800.

8 June 2016, Paris School of Economics, Paris (France)
Guido Alfani gave a seminar entitled Economic Inequality in preindustial Europe, 1300-1800.

28-30 April 2016, Associazione Italiana per la Storia del Pensiero Economico, Lecce (Italy)
Guido Alfani and Francesco Ammannati presented a paper entitled Potere, fiscalità e disuguaglianza in Toscana tra tardo Medioevo ed Età moderna.

29 March-1 April 2016, European Social Science History Conference Valencia (Spain)
EINITE organized the session Wealth and Income Inequality in Preindustrial Europe and Beyond, chaired by Carlos Santiago-Caballero. The session included three papers presented by EINITE members:

• Guido Alfani and Hector García Montero, Economic Inequality in England: a Long-term Perspective (1290-1750 ca.)

• Guido Alfani, Davide De Franco, Matteo Di Tullio and Hector García Montero, Long-term Trends in Wealth Inequality in Mediterranean Europe: Catalonia, Provence and Liguria compared. 

• Guido Alfani and Federico Tadei, Income Inequality in Colonial Africa.

9 March 2016, Insights in Quantitative Italian and European Business and Economic History, Pisa (Italy)
Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Reconstructing Long-term Trends in Economic Inequality. Italy and Europe, 1300-1800.

9 December 2015, 4th EINITE Workshop Long-term Trends in Economics Inequality in Europe and Beyond: Social tables and other approaches, Milan (Italy)

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Download the invitation.

11-13 September 2015, Economic History Association Annual Meeting, Nashville (USA)
Guido Alfani and Sergio Sardone presented a paper entitled Long-term trends in economic inequality in southern Italy. The Kingdom of Naples, sixteenth-eighteenth centuries.

4-5 September 2015, European Historical Economics Society Conference, Pisa (Italy)
Guido Alfani and Davide De Franco presented a paper, entitled Economic and social inequality in a preindustrial society: building a social table for northern Italy (Sabaudian State, 1612).

3-7 August 2015, World Economic History Conference, Kyoto (Japan)

Guido Alfani and Osamu Saito organized a session entitled  Economic inequality in pre-industrial Eurasia. All members of the EINITE project contributed to the session.

18 June 2015, Third EINITE Workshop Economic Inequality in Southern Europe, Milan (Italy)

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14-15 May 2015, Passaggi di memoria. La trasmissione generazionale del trauma
Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Le crisi di mortalità e la trasmissione della disuguaglianza in Italia tra Medioevo ed Età Moderna.

9 April 2015, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)
Guido Alfani gave a seminar entitled Economic inequality in Italy: a long-term view (1300-1800 ca.).

27-29 March 2015, Economic History Society Annual Conference, Wolverhampton (U.K.)
EINITE organized the session Long Term Changes in Economic Inequality, chaired by Richard Smith. The session included two papers presented by EINITE members:
Guido Alfani and Wouter Ryckbosch, Was there a ‘Little Convergence’ in inequality? Low countries and Italy compared, c.1500-1900
Hector García Montero, Economic inequality in England from the middle ages to the eve of the industrial revolution.

6 March 2015, Economic History Workshop, Pisa (Italy)

Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Long-term trends in European economic inequality. A comparison of Italy and Low Countries, ca. 1500-1900.

21 November 2014, Second EINITE Workshop, Economic inequality and cultural change: lessons from history, Milan (Italy)

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Download the invitation here.

10-11 October 2014, Innovare nella Storia Economica: temi, metodi, fonti, Rome (Italy)

Guido Alfani and Matteo Di Tullio presented a paper entitled Dinamiche di lungo periodo sulla diseguaglianza in Italia Settentrionale

Francesco Ammannati gave also a paper, entitled La distribuzione della proprietà nella Lucchesia del tardo medioevo

23-26 April 2014, European Social Science History Conference, Vienna (Austria)

EINITE organized a session entitled Economic Inequality and Population Dynamics. The session included five papers presented by EINITE members:

Guido Alfani and Matteo Di Tullio,  Economic inequality and mortality crises in Early Modern Italy: the case of the Republic of Venice, 16th-18th centuries

Fabrice Boudjaaba, Mortality crises and inequalities of wealth in Normandy late 17th-early 18th century

Héctor García-Montero, Wealth inequality and mortality crises in Catalonia, 15th-17th centuries

Wouter Ryckbosch, Demographic growth and inequality during the early modern and modern periods (Flanders, 16th & 19th centuries)

Guido Alfani and Francesco Ammannati, Population, plague and inequality: a long-term view of the impact of mortality crises on economic inequality in Tuscany, fourteenth-eighteenth centuries

Also at this conference, Guido Alfani presented the paper Long-term trends in economic inequality in Western Europe: the case of Piedmont, fourteenth-eighteenth centuries

5 December 2013, First EINITE Workshop, "Measuring inequality in the past: methods and perspectives," Milan (Italy)

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20-22 September 2013, Economic History Association Annual Meeting, Washington D.C. (USA)

Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Economic inequality in northwestern Italy: A long-term view (14th to 18th centuries)

12-14 September 2013, 6th Conference of the Associazione Italiana di Studi Urbani (AISU), Catania (Italy)

Two papers co-authored by EINITE members were presented:

Francesco Ammannati, Matteo Di Tullio, and Davide De Franco, Misurare la diseguaglianza economica in eta preindustriale: Un confronto fra realta urbane dell'Italia centro-settentrionale.

Michela Barbot and Matteo Di Trullio, Le case come indice della ricchezza e imponibile fiscale nella Lombardia d'eta moderna.

19-22 August 2013, Rural History Conference

Tine De Moor and Guido Alfani organised the Ruling the Commons session. One of the main sub-topics proposed for the session was Commons and Inequality. Matteo Di Tullio also presented a paper entitled Commons and Inequality in Renaissance Lombardy.

Also at this conference, Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Long-term trends in economic inequality in rural areas. Central and northern Italy, 15th-18th centuries in a session organized by Wouter Ryckbosch and Jaco Zuijderduijn, Towards a comparative approach to rural inequality in the transition debate.

18-21 June 2013, 10th Congress of the Asociación de Demografía Histórica

Guido Alfani presented a paper entitled Economic  inequality, household wealth and the life course in Early Modern Italy. The case study of Ivrea (16th-17th century).

5-7 April 2013, Economic History Society Annual Conference, York (U.K.)

EINITE organized the session Economic Inequality in Pre-Industrial Europe, chaired by Richard Smith. The session included two papers presented by EINITE members:

Guido Alfani and Roberta Frigeni, Inequality (un)perceived: the emergence of a discourse on economic inequality from the Middle Ages to the Age of Revolutions

Carlos Santiago Caballero and Eva Fernandez, Income inequality in Madrid, 1500-1850

Also at this conference, Matteo Di Tullio presented the paper Manage, sell and redistribute. Commons and War in Renaissance Lombardy.

22 March 2013, Population History Seminar, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock (Germany)

Guido Alfani gave a seminar presentation discussing EINITE.

12 October 2012, PhD Festival, Trento (Italy)

Guido Alfani gave a presentation about the ERC starting research grant program and EINITE.

4 June 2012, Seminari di Storia Economica e Sociale, Università Bocconi, Milan (Italy)

Guido Alfani gave a seminar presentation discussing EINITE.

10 February 2012, seminar Histoire économique et sociale des campagnes (XVIIe-XIX siècle), EHESS, Paris (France)

Guido Alfani gave a seminar entitled L’inégalité économique en Italie au début de l’Age Moderne : mesures et implications.


The EINITE Database

The EINITE database will include measures of economic inequality across Italy and Europe from the Middle Ages to the eve of the Industrial Revolution. Our longest time series will cover the whole period from the 14th century (pre-Black Death) to the early 19th century. The archive sources we use are mostly property tax records, like the Italian estimi.

The measures of inequality we will provide include Gini and Theil indexes, deciles, quartiles, top 5% and top 1%, plus a large number of institutional, geographic, and social-economic variables for each community. The data will be arranged per community and per year.

The final version of the database will be made public as soon as the cleaning of the data for all the areas covered by the project is completed. Specific sub-sections of the database, and particularly those that have already been the object of publications, are ready and available upon request to the P.I.

Economic Inequality Network

Economic Inequality Network (EI-Net)

Network organizer: Guido Alfani (guido.alfani@unibocconi.it)

EI-Net is the scientific network connecting researchers interested in pre-industrial economic inequality. The network began in January 2013 and welcomes researchers from all over the world, from all disciplines and in all stages of their careers.

The characteristics and trends of economic inequality before the 19th century are still clearly understudied, and almost all we know relates to small areas of the European continent. This network aims to promote new research in the field and to favour scientific exchanges, possibly leading to the start of large-scale cooperative and comparative research projects.

EI-Net is meant simply as a means for circulating information among members. There are no specific commitments and there are no fees to be paid. Any member is welcome to distribute information about scientific initiatives connected to pre-industrial economic inequality by means of the newsletter regularly sent to all members.

The network is supported by the ERC-funded research project EINITE-Economic Inequality across Italy and Europe (1300-1800).

Download the subscription form.


Open Calls Promoted by EI-Net

Conference “Economic inequality in preindustrial Europe” (Bocconi University, Milan, 25 November 2016)

After years of relative neglect by economic historians, recently long-term trends in economic inequality have become the object of considerable attention. This process has involved different parts of the world, but nowhere has research on preindustrial inequality intensified as much as in Europe, partly due to the exceptionally good and ancient historical sources available for many areas of that continent. The project EINITE (Economic Inequality across Italy and Europe 1300-1800), funded by the European Research Council, has also contributed to this renewal of interest by organizing regular workshops on preindustrial inequality and other scientific activities.

EINITE is now working on its final conference, which aims at bringing together representatives of all the main research groups working on preindustrial European inequality. The aim is to provide an opportunity for comparing the wealth of new information about inequality which is being unearthed, to favour cooperation between international scholars, to establish some clear landmarks (‘what we know about inequality’) as well as to indicate the path for future research (‘what we don’t know’).

All proposals about inequality of wealth or income in any part of Europe before ca.1800 are welcome. Preference will be given to proposals presenting new evidence, reconstructing long-term trends and/or offering comparisons between different areas of the continent.

The conference will take place at Bocconi University (Milan, Italy), on 25 November 2016. The organization will cover the travel expenses of all accepted participants.

Proposals, inclusive of a title and a short abstract, should be sent to Guido Alfani (guido.alfani@unibocconi.it) before 5 September 2016.


Session "Economic inequality in pre-industrial Eurasia" at World Economic History Conference (Kyoto, 3-5 August 2015)

There is evidence that in early modern western Europe GDP per capita grew while real wages declined in many European countries over the same period. This finding has been interpreted as indicating that income inequality was widening in the early modern period since per capita GDP averages the earnings of the rich with the poor, whereas the real wage index focuses on the latter only. According to this interpretation, therefore, a finding about Tokugawa Japan, that a divergence between wage change and output growth did not take place, may be regarded as evidence of no rise in inequality during the period before the take-off of modern economic growth.

This session explores long-term changes in economic inequality with more direct measures, such as the Gini, of either income or wealth inequality, or both, in relation to the "left side" of the so-called super Kuznets curve. The topic has long been understudied. However, recent research by European historians has unearthed new data from the archives, which have enabled us to estimate Ginis and other inequality measures for a particular area under a particular set of historical circumstances. It is evident that levels of economic inequality were not immobile during the late medieval and early modern periods. While the general tendency is likely to have been on the rise (suggesting that the "inequality possibility frontier" was expanding), changes took place according to specific mechanisms which are still to be uncovered and explained. This raises new region-specific questions about the early modern European inequality issue.

Moreover, ongoing projects on different parts of the world, especially the Asian region from the Middle East to Japan, urge us to place our research findings in a comparative context. Such comparison has much to do with the current debate on the Great and the Little Divergence. During the past decade, differences in growth performance between Asia and Europe as well as within each of the Eurasian regions have been explored: in Europe the North Sea area kept up the growth momentum but the Mediterranean region could not, while within Asia China and India are likely to have been taken over by slowly but steadily growing Japan during the early modern period. These are phenomena which will raise a broader question about the subtle interplay between growth and inequality in this historic phase of development.

The session is open to contributions from all parts of Europe and Asia, both empirical (providing new data) and theoretical or interpretative. Micro studies are welcome, especially for areas previously uncovered by research on preindustrial inequality, as well as works covering larger areas or having a comparative character.

While the ultimate aim of the session is to provide direct Eurasian comparisons, proposals related to other areas of the world are also much appreciated as they would extend our comparison possibility frontier beyond Eurasia.

If you wish to propose a contribution to the session, please send an email with a provisional title and a short abstract to Guido Alfani (guido.alfani@unibocconi.it) before 31 May 2014.


Session "Economic Inequality and Population Dynamics" at European Social Science History Conference (Vienna, 23-26 April 2014)

This session intends to explore the connection between population dynamics and changes in levels of economic inequality. Some recent studies suggest that demographic factors could have played an important role in determining inequality trends, both in the short and long run. For example, in the long run country-city migration contributed to shaping inequality trends and levels both in urban and in rural communities (due to wealth/income differentials between urban and rural households). In the short run, severe mortality crises, like those caused by the worst plague epidemics, had re-distributive consequences and in some instances (like at the time of the Black Death) could have had 'displacement effects', causing relevant and long-lasting changes in levels of economic inequality. The session welcomes both micro studies as well as general overviews about any area of the world. Preference is given to papers concerning pre-industrial societies.

If you wish to propose a contribution to the session, please send an email including a title and a short abstract to Guido Alfani (guido.alfani@unibocconi.it) before 30 April 2013.

EI Meta-WP Series

This Meta-Working Paper series lists working papers on the history of economic inequality published in official working papers series worldwide. Only contributions written in English and published online since 2010 are included. Papers concerning the period from 1950 until today are included only if they cover at least 40 years of history. If you prefer your paper be removed from the list, or to suggest the inclusion of a paper, please email: guido.alfani@unibocconi.it.

Click here to view the entire database and select a downloadable file.


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Economic effects of the Black Death: Spain in European perspective Álvarez Nogal, Prados de la Escosura, Santiago Caballero 1277-1500 June, 2020
Statehood experience and income inequality: A historical perspective Vu 3500BCE to 2000CE May, 2020
Inequality and the Safety Net Throughout the Income Distribution, 1929-1940 Feigenbaum, Fishback, Grayson 1929-1940 May, 2020
Inclusive growth without structural transformation?: The case of Brazil Firpo, Pieri, Nogueira 1950-2011 May, 2020
Inequalities: Income, Wealth and consumption Boyer 1920-2019 April, 2020
Modigliani Meets Minsky: Inequality, Debt, and Financial Fragility in America, 1950-2016 Bartscher, Kuhn, Schularick, Steins 1950-2016 April, 2020
Wage Differentials, Bargaining Protocols, and Trade Unionism in Mid-Twentieth Century American Labor Markets Pencavel  1940-1970 April, 2020
The Kuznets curve of the Rich Dávila-Fernández, Punzo 1950-2014 April, 2020
Income Inequality in Mexico 1895-1940: Industrialization, Revolution, Institutions Castañeda Garza and Bengtsson 1895-1940 March, 2020
Top Income Shares in Greece from Dictatorship to Crisis: 1967-2017 Koutentakis and Chrissis 1967-2017 March, 2020
Inequality, Low-Intensity Immigration and Human Capital Formation in the Regions of Chile, 1820-1939 Baten, Llorca-Jaña 1820-1939 March, 2020
Growth Recurring in Preindustrial Spain: Half a Millennium Perspective Prados de la Escosura, Álvarez-Nogal, Santiago-Caballero 1277-1850 March, 2020
Economic Inequality in Preindustrial Germany, ca. 1300 – 1850 Alfani, Gierok, Schaff 1300-1850 February, 2020
Inequality in nineteenth century Manhattan: Evidence from the housing market Gray 1880-1910 February, 2020
A Noi! Income Inequality and Italian Fascism: Evidence from Labour and Top Income Shares Gabbuti 1900-1952 February, 2020
Monetary policy and the top one percent: Evidence from a century of modern economic history El Herradi and Leroy 1920-2015 January, 2020
Economic integration and the distribution of income in Europe: A between country analysis Ghoshray, Monfort, Ordóñez 1960-2016 January, 2020
Aristocracy and Inequality in Italy, 1861-1931 A'Hearn, Chianese, Vecchi 1861-1931 January, 2020


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Mercantilist Inequality: Wealth and Poverty in Stockholm 1650-1750 Bengtsson, Olsson, Svensson 1650-1750 December, 2019
Spouses' Income Association and Inequality: A Non-Linear Perspective Grossbard, Mangiavacchi, Nilsson, Piccoli 1973-2013 December, 2019
Structural transformations and the lack of inclusive growth: The case of Chile Solimano and Zapata-Román 1968-2015 December, 2019
Rural Transformation, Inequality, and the Origins of Microfinance Suesse and Wolf 1852-1913 December, 2019
Accounting for Wealth Inequality Dynamics: Methods, Estimates and Simulations for France Garbinti, Goupille-Lebret, Piketty 1970-2014 December, 2019
Between communism and capitalism: long-run inequality in Poland Bukowski and Novokmet 1892-2015 November, 2019
Intergenerational Mobility of Immigrants in the US over Two Centuries Abramitzky, Boustan, Jácome, Pérez 1880-2015 October, 2019
Hidden wealth Cummins 1920-2016 September, 2019
Economic Development in Spain, 1815-2017 Prados de la Escosura, Sánchez-Alonso
1815-2017 July, 2019
Always Egalitarian: Australian Earnings Inequality 1870-1910 Panza and Williamson 1870-1910 July, 2019
Between Communism and Capitalism: Long-Term Inequality in Poland, 1892-2015 Bukowski and Novokmet 1892-2015 June, 2019
Social Mobility in the Long Run: A Temporal Analysis of China from 1300 to 1900 Carol Hua Shiue 1300-1900 April, 2019
The distributional impact of structural transformation in rural India: Model-based simulation and case-study evidence Elbers and Lanjouw 1957-2015 April, 2019
The intergenerational effects of a large wealth shock: White southerners after the Civil War Ager; Boustan; Eriksson 1860-1940 March, 2019
Living Standards, Inequality, and Human Development since 1870 : a Review of Evidence Cha; Prados de la Escosura 1870-2015 March, 2019
Where is the Middle Class? Inequality, Gender and the Shape of the Upper Tail from 60 million English Death and Probate Records, 1892-2016 Cummins 1892-2016 February, 2019
The rise of the middle class: The income gap between salaried employees and workers in Sweden, 1830-1935 Bengtsson and Prado
1830-1935 January, 2019


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Richer or more Numerous or both? The Role of Population and Economic Growth for Top Income Shares Krolage,  Peichl,  Waldenström  1917-2014 December, 2018
Poverty and Inequality in Francophone Africa, 1960s-2010s Sédi-Anne Boukaka, Giulia Mancini and Giovanni Vecchi 1960-2010 December, 2018
Some New Insights on Financialisation and Income Inequality Marwil Dávila-Fernández and Lionello F. Punzo 1950-2010 December, 2018
Inequality and relative saving rates at the top Lieberknecht, Philipp; Vermeulen, Philip 1913-2014 November, 2018
The Comfortable, the Rich, and the Super-rich. What Really Happened to Top British Incomes During the First Half of the Twentieth Century? Scott and Walker  1914-1949 October, 2018
Wages, income distribution and economic growth in Scandinavia Bengtsson, Stockhammer  1900-2010 October, 2018
A Workers’ Revolution in Sweden? Exploring Economic Growth and Distributional Change with Detailed Data on Construction Workers’ Wages, 1831–1900 Ericsson, Molinder 1831-1900 October, 2018
Decomposing Economic Inequality in Early Modern Venice (ca. 1650-1800) Viale, Demo,  Ricciuti 1650-1800 October, 2018
Labour Shares and Income Inequality: Insights from Italian Economic History, 1895-2015 Gabbuti 1895-2015 October, 2018
Social mobility in nineteenth century Spain : Valencia, 1841-1870 Santiago-Caballero 1841-1870 October, 2018
A Different Perspective on the Evolution of UK Income Inequality Atkinson and Jenkins 1961-2010 October, 2018
Historical Patterns of Inequality and Productivity around Financial Crises Pascal 1870-2013 October, 2018
The wealth of the Swedish peasant farmer class 1750–1900 : Composition and distribution Bengtsson, Svensson 1750–1900 September, 2018
Inequality in Colonial India Tirthankar Roy 1858-1947 September, 2018
Top Incomes in Germany, 1871-2014 Bartels 1871-2014 September, 2018
Growth Volatility and Inequality in the U.S.: A Wavelet Analysis  Chang, Gupta, Miller,  Wohar  1917-2015 and 1962-2014  June, 2018
Economic inequality in Madrid, 1500-1840  Fernández, Santiago-Caballer  1500-1840 June, 2018
Inequality in pre-income survey times: a methodological proposal Lezama and Willebald 1870-1912 June, 2018
Unions and Inequality Over the Twentieth Century: New Evidence from Survey Data Farber,  Herbst,  Kuziemko,  Naidu 1936-2018 May, 2018
The Kuznets Curve on Income Distribution Does Not Hold in China: A Critical Assessment  He,  Zou  221 B.C.-1644 April, 2018
The Distribution of Gains from Globalization Lang , Mendes Tavares 1970-2014  March, 2018
Mobility and Continuity of Political Elites over Phases of Regime Change Matsumoto, Okazaki 1868-1915 March, 2018
Regional Economic Development in Europe, 1900-2010: a description of the Patterns Rosés,  Wolf 1900-2010 March, 2018
Latin American Household Budget Surveys 1913-1970 and What They Tell Us about Economic Inequality among Households  Gazeley,  Holmes, Lanata Briones, Newell, Reynolds,  Rufrancos 1913-1970 March, 2018
Intergenerational Earnings Persistence and Economic Inequality in the Long-Run: Evidence from French Cohorts, 1931-1975  Lefranc  1931-1975  March, 2018
Globalization and Income Inequality Revisited Dorn, Fuest, Potrafke 1970-2014 January, 2018
Poor country, rich history, many lessons: The evolution of wealth-income ratios in India 1860-2012 Rishabh 1860-2012 January, 2018
Intergenerational mobility in the 19th century: micro-level evidence from the city of Zurich Favre, Floris, Woitek 1780-1870 January, 2018



Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Between Malthus and the industrial take-off: regional inequality in Sweden, 1571-1850 Enflo, Missiaia 1571-1850 December, 2017
Philippine Inequality across the Twentieth Century: Slim Evidence but Fat Questions Williamson 1903-2000 December, 2017
Inequality, Foreign Investment, and Imperialism Hauner, Milanovic, Naidu 1860-1914 November, 2017
Distribution, wealth and demand regimes in historical perspective. USA, UK, France and Germany, 1855-2010  Stockhammer, Rabinovich, Reddy 1855-2010 November, 2017
Household Wealth Trends in the United States, 1962 to 2016: Has Middle Class Wealth Recovered? Wolff 1960-2016 November, 2017
Inequality in an Equal Society Harvey, Mierau, Rockey 1962-2016 November, 2017
The Dynamics of Inequality in the Human Story: A Brief Sketch Wisman - October, 2017
Indian income inequality, 1922-2014: From British Raj to Billionaire Raj ? Chancel, Piketty 1922-2014 October, 2017
The Rise and Future of Progressive Redistribution Lindert 1870-2010 October, 2017
What Really Happened to British Inequality in the Early 20th Century? Evidence from National Household Expenditure Surveys 1890–1961  Gazeley, Newell, Reynolds, Rufrancos 1980-1961 October, 2017
Is inequality increasing in r-g? Piketty’s principle of capitalist economics and the dynamics of inequality in Britain, 1210-2013 Madsen 1210-2013 October, 2017
How does inequality affect long-run growth? Gutiérrez-Romero 1820-2010 September, 2017
Ethnic Differences in Demographic Behavior in the United States: What Can We Learn from Vital Statistics about Inequality? Haines 1920-2017 September, 2017
Kuznets Curve for the US: A Reconsideration Using Cosummability Adnen, Balcilar, Akadiri, Gupta  1917-2012 September, 2017
Educational inequality and intergenerational mobility in Latin America: A new databas Neidhöfer, Serrano, Gasparini  1940-1990 August, 2017
From Soviets to Oligarchs: Inequality and Property in Russia, 1905-2016 Novokmet, Piketty, Zucman 1905-2016 August, 2017
Income and Wealth Inequality in America, 1949-2013 Kuhn, Schularick, Steins 1943-2013 August, 2017
Consumption and Income Inequality in the U.S. Since the 1960s Meyer, Sullivan 1960-2014 August, 2017
Income Concentration in British India, 1885-1946  Alvaredo, Bergeron, Cassan 1885-1946 June, 2017
Politics, Not Economics, Ultimately Drives Inequality Wisman 1945-2017 June, 2017
Distributional Consequences of CapitalAccumulation, Globalisation and Financialisation in the US Karanassou, Sala 1968-2014 May, 2017
Class Structure and Inequality during the Industrial Revolution: Lessons from England’s Social Tables, 1688-1867  Allen  1688-1867 May, 2017
Global Earnings Inequality, 1970–2015 Hammar, Waldenström 1970-2015 May, 2017
A history of inequality: top incomes in Brazil, 1926–2015  Ferreira de Souza  1926–2015  April, 2017
Income Inequality in France, 1900-2014: Evidence from Distributional National Accounts Garbinti,  Goupille-Lebret, Piketty 1900-2014 April, 2017
Capital Accumulation, Private Property and Rising Inequality in China, 1978-2015 Piketty, Yang, Zucman 1978-2015 April, 2017
Income inequality in New Zealand, 1935 to 2014 Creedy, Gemmell, Nguyen 1935-2013 March, 2017
Evolution of Tax Progressivity in the U.S.: New Estimates and Welfare Implications Navarro, Ferriere, Feenberg  1960-2008 February, 2017
Immigration and the Rise of American Ingenuity Akcigit, Grigsby, Nicholas 1880-2000 February, 2017
Accounting for Wealth Inequality Dynamics: Methods, Estimates and Simulations for France (1800-2014) Garbinti,  Goupille-Lebret, Piketty 1800-2014 January, 2017
Income Inequality in Colonial Africa: Building Social Tables for Pre-Independence Central African Republic, Ivory Coast, and Senegal Alfani, Tadei 1939-2015 January, 2017
Australian Exceptionalism? Inequality and Living Standards 1821-1871 Panza, Williamson  1821-1871 January, 2017
The Wealth of the Richest: Inequality and the Nobility in Sweden, 1750–1900 Bengtsson, Missiaia, Olsson, Svensson 1750-1900 January, 2017
Constructing equality? : Women’s wages for physical labor, 1550-1759 Gary 1550-1759 January, 2017
Top Wealth Shares in the UK over more than a Century Alvaredo, Atkinson, Morelli 1895-2016 January, 2017
Australian Exceptionalism? Inequality and Living Standards 1821-1871 Panza, Williamson 1821-1871 January, 2017
Inheritance Flows in Switzerland, 1911-2011 Bruhlart, Dupertuis, Moreau 1911-2011 January, 2017


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
The Rise of the Working Rich, Market Imperfections, and Income Inequality Chhy 1950-2013 December, 2016
Distributional National Accounts: Methods and Estimates for the United States Piketty, Saez, Zucman 1913-2016 December, 2016
Inequality, Financial Development and Economic Growth in the OECD, 1870-2011 Madsen, Islam, Doucouliagos 1870-2011 December, 2016
Wealth and inequality in eight centuries of British capitalism Madsen 1210-2013 December, 2016
The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940 Chetty, Grusky, Hell, Hendren, Manduca, Narang 1940-2010 December, 2016
Purchasing Power Disparity before 1914 Lindert <1914 December, 2016
Towards an explanation of inequality in pre-modern societies:the role of colonies and high population density Milanovic 330 BCE-1938 November, 2016
Pareto and the upper tail of the income distribution in the UK: 1799 to the present Atkinson 1799-2016 October, 2016
On the measurement of long-run income inequality. Empirical evidence from Norway, 1875-2013 Aaberge, Atkinson, Modalsli  1875-2013 October, 2016
Reversal of the Kuznets curve: Study on the inequality–development relation using top income shares data Tuominen 1900-2010 September, 2016
Two different sources of inequalities: profits and rents in advanced market economies Mihalyi, Szelenyi 1965-2015 August, 2016
What is the Contribution of Intra-household Inequality to Overall Income Inequality? Evidence from Global Data, 1973-2013 Malghan, Swaminathan 1973-2013 August, 2016
The paradox of land reform, inequality and local development in Colombia Faguet, Sanches, Villaveces 1961-2010 July, 2016
The regional dispersion of income inequality in nineteenth-century Norway Modalsli 1814-1900 June, 2016
Regional human capital inequality in Europe in the long run, 1850 – 2010 Diebolt, Hippe 1850-2010 June, 2016
Inequality and the New Deal Belabed 1913-1941 May, 2016
Trends in Mediterranean Inequalities 1950-2015 Daniele, Malanima 1950-2015 April, 2016
Intergenerational mobility in the very long run: Florence 1427-2011 Barone, Mocetti 1427-2011 April, 2016
Income Distribution in Prewar Japan Okazaki  1885-1940 April, 2016
The rich in historical perspective. Evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca. 1300-1800) Alfani 1300-1800 March, 2016
Explaining regional inequality from the periphery: The mexican case, 1900-2000 Retureta 1900-2000 March, 2016
Comparing Income and Wealth Inequality in Pre-Industrial Economies: Lessons from 18th-Century Spain Nicolini, Ramos Palencia 1750 March, 2016
The Accumulation, Inheritance, and Concentration of Wealth during the Gilded Age: An Exception to Thomas Piketty’s Analysis Sutch 1870-1817 January, 2016
Inequality and the working class in Scandinavia 1800 to 1910 - Workers' share of growing income Bengtsson 1800-1910 January, 2016
Private Wealth in a Developing Country: A South African Perspective on Piketty Orthofer 1970-2010 January, 2016
The Effect of a Massive Wage Push on Income Distribution and Employment. Evidence from the 1920 Eight-Hour Workday Reform in Sweden and Its Aftermath Bengtsson, Molinder 1910-1929 January, 2016


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
The One-Percent across Two Centuries: A Replication of Thomas Piketty’s Data on the Distribution of Wealth for the United States Sutch 1810-2010 December, 2015
Family Patterns and Social Inequality among Children in the United States 1940-2012: A Re-assessment Fahey  1940-2012 December, 2015
Income distribution in rural Buenos Aires, 1839-1867 Bértola, Gelman, Such 1839-1867 December, 2015
Capital shares and income inequality: Evidence from the long run Bengtsson, Waldenstrom 1870-2000 December, 2015
A closer look at the long-term patterns of regional income inequality in Spain: the poor stay poor (and stay together) Tirado-Fabregat, Diez-Minguela , Martinez-Galarraga 1860-2010 October, 2015
Gender income disparity in the USA: analysis and dynamic modelling Kitov, Kitov 1930-2014 October, 2015
Wealth-income ratios in a small, late-industrializing, welfare-state economy: Sweden, 1810–2014 Waldenstrom 1810-2014 October, 2015
The Political Economy of the Top 1% in an Age of Turbulence: Chile 1913-1973 Weber 1913-1973 September, 2015
The evolution of wealth inequality over half a century: the role of skills, taxes and institutions Poschke, Kaymak 1960-2010 September, 2015
What Drives Inequality? Wisman 1950-2013 September, 2015
Was there a ‘Little Convergence’ in inequality? Italy and the Low Countries compared, ca. 1500-1800 Alfani, Ryckbosch 1500-1800 September, 2015
Income Distribution and the Great Depression Belabed 1920-1929 June, 2015
Convergence in Income Inequality: Further Evidence from the Club Clustering Methodology across the U.S. States Apergis, Christou, Gupta, Miller 1929-2009 June, 2015
Land Access Inequality and Education in Pre-industrial Spain Beltrán Tapia, Martínez-Galarraga 1860 May, 2015
Income inequality in China: Testing the Kuznets Hypothesis with National Time Series and Provincial Panel Data 1978-2011 Cheng, Wu 1978-2011 May, 2015
Persistence vs. Reversal and Agglomeration Economies vs. Natural Resources. Regional inequality in Argentina in the first half of the twentieth century Aráoz, Nicolini 1914-1953 May, 2015
Inequality and poverty in a developing economy: Evidence from regional data (Spain, 1860-1930) Beltran Tapia, Martinez-Galarrage  1860-1930 May, 2015
National income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland in a global perspective Malinowski, Van Zanden 1410-1910 May, 2015
A spectre has haunted the west: did socialism discipline income inequality? Albuquerque Sant'Anna 1960-2010 April, 2015
Income inequality in Chile since 1850 Rodríguez, Weber  1850-2009 April, 2015
Historical   Patterns   of   Gender   Inequality   in   Latin  America:   New Evidence Camou 1940-2000 April, 2015
Regional income distribution in Mexico: new long-term evidence, 1895-2010 Aguilar-Retureta  1895–2010 April, 2015
Functional Inequality in Latin America: News from the Twentieth Century Astorga 1900-2011 April, 2015
Changing Income Inequality and Structural Transformation The Case of Botswana 1921-2010 Hillbom, Bolt 1921-2010 March, 2015
Long-term trends in income distribution a global perspective Obst 1960-2012 February, 2015
Industrial Structure, Prefectural Inequality, and Convergence in Pre-war Japan (1874-1940) Settsu 1874-1940 February, 2015
The Income Distribution in the UK: A Picture of Advantage and Disadvantage Jenkins 1961-2013 February, 2015
Latin American Inequality: Colonial Origins, Commodity Booms, or a Missed 20th Century Leveling? Williamson 1492-2013 January, 2015
A Colonial Legacy of African Gender Inequality? Evidence from Christian Kampala, 1895-2011 Meier zu Selhausen, Weisdorf 1895-2011 January, 2015



Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Economic inequality and poverty in the very long run: The case of the Florentine State  (late thirteenth-early nineteenth centuries) Alfani, Ammannati 1277-1792 December, 2014
What Do We Know About Evolution of Top Wealth Shares in the United States? Kopczuk 1913-2013 December, 2014
Cooperating against inequality? War and commons in Renaissance Lombardy Di Tullio 1476-1559 December, 2014
Economic inequality and growth before the industrial revolution: A case study of the Low Countries (14th-19th centuries) Ryckbosch 1350-1850 November, 2014
Wealth Inequality in the United States since 1913: Evidence from Capitalized Income Tax Data Saez, Zucman 1913-2013 October, 2014
Inequality and Wealth Creation in Ancient History: Malthus' Theory Reconsidered Svizzero, Tisdell
September, 2014
Inherited wealth over the path of development: Sweden, 1810–2010 Ohlsson, Roine, Waldenstrom 1810-2010 August, 2014
Inequality is bad for growth of the poor (but not for that of the rich) van der Weide, Milanovic 1960-2010 July, 2014
Wealth and Inheritance in the Long Run Piketty, Zucman 1750-2013 July, 2014
Long run trends in the distribution of income and wealth Roine, Waldenstrom 1870-2010 April, 2014
Economic inequality in northwestern Italy: A long-term view (fourteenth to eighteenth centuries) Alfani 1300-1800 March, 2014
The Wages of Women in England, 1260-1850 Humphries, Weisdorf 1260-1850 March, 2014
The colonial legacy Atkinson 1917-1990 February, 2014
Evolution of Land Distribution in West Bengal 1967-2004: Role of Land Reform and Demographic Changes Bardhan, Luca, Mookherjee, Pino 1967-2004 January, 2014
Gender Discrimination in Property Rights Casari, Lisciandra 1200-1900 January, 2014
Inequality and biological welfare during the mining boom: Rio Tinto, 1836-1935 Martínez-Carrión, Pérez de Perceval Verde, Soto 1836-1935 January, 2014
Global interpersonal inequality : trends and measurement Niño-Zarazúa, Roope, Tarp 1975-2005 January, 2014
American colonial incomes 1650-1774 Lindert, Williamson 1650-1774 January, 2014


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Surnames and social mobility: England 1230-2012 Clark, Cummins 1230-2012 November, 2013
Wealth and Inheritance in Britain from 1896 to the Present Atkinson 1896-2006 November, 2013
Inequality from a global perspective: An alternative approach Edward, Summers 1980-2010 August, 2013
Inequality (un)perceived: The emergence of a discourse on economic inequality from the Middle Ages to the Age of Revolutions Alfani, Frigeni 1100-1830 July, 2013
East of Eden: Polish living standards in a European perspective, ca. 1500-1800 Malinowski 1500-1800 June, 2013
Russian Serfdom, Emancipation, and Land Inequality: New Evidence Nafziger 1858-1905 May, 2013
The top 1 percent in International and Historical Perspective Alvaredo, Atkinson, Piketty, Saez 1913-2011 May, 2013
Top Wealth Shares in Australia 1915-2012 Katic, Leigh 1915-2012 March, 2013
If Technology Has Arrived Everywhere, Why Has Income Diverged? Comin, Mestieri 1820-2000 March, 2013
The First Great Divergence and the Evolution of Cross-Country Income Inequality during the Last Millennium: the Role of Institutions and Culture Madsen, Yan 950-1850 March, 2013
The long-run history of income inequality in Denmark: Top incomes from 1870 to 2010 Atkinson, Søgaard 1870-2010 February, 2013


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Coping with regional inequality in Sweden : structural change, migrations and policy, 1860-2000 Enflo, Roses 1860-2000 October, 2012
Financial Reforms and Income Inequality Agnello, Mallick, Sousa 1973-2005 October, 2012
American incomes 1774-1860 Lindert, Williamson 1774-1860 September, 2012
Land Markets and Inequality: Evidence from Medieval England Bekar, Reed 1086-1280 May, 2012
Wealth and inequality in Italy d'Alessio 1965-2010 February, 2012
The development of inequality and poverty in Indonesia, 1932-1999 Leeuwen, Foldvari 1932-1999 January, 2012


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Inequality of Wealth in the Ottoman Empire: War, Weather, and Long-term Trends in Eighteenth Century Kastamonu Cosgel, Ergene 1713-1802 December, 2011
Economic crises and Inequalities Atkinson, Morelli 1910-2010 November, 2011
Global inequality: from class to location, from proletarians to migrants Milanovic, Branko
September, 2011
Wage Inequality and the Labor Market Impact of Economic Transformation: Croatia, 1970-2008 Hoffman 1970-2008 August, 2011
Real wages at the Cape of Good Hope: A long-term perspective, 1652-1912 de Zwart 1652-1912 August, 2011
The rise and fall of income inequality in Latin America Gasparini, Lustig
August, 2011
Intergenerational inequalities since baby-boom Clerc, Monso, Pouliquen 1960-2010 June, 2011
A History With Evidence: Income inequality in the Dutch Cape Colony Fourie, von Fintel 1700-1757 April, 2011
Inequality and growth in the very long run: inferring inequality from data on social groups Modalsli, Jørgen 1 - 1947 March, 2011
The Long Trace of Inequality: Evidence from Cundinamarca, Colombia Galán 1879-2005 February, 2011
The inequality trap. A comparative analysis of social spending between 1880 and 1933 Espuelas 1880-1933 January, 2011
African Real Wages in Asian Perspective, 1880-1940 Frankema, van Waijenburg 1880-1940 January, 2011


Title  Author(s) Period Covered Date
Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective Chilosi 1820-2001 December, 2010
Main Characteristics of the Hungarian Income Inequality as Shown by the Data of the Income Surveys Carried out by the CSO in the Last Half Century Elteto, Havasi 1959-2004 November, 2010
The long-term patterns of regional income inequality in Spain (1860-2000) Rosés, Tirado, Galarraga 1860-2000 October, 2010
The Fruit of the Vine? An Augmented Endowments-Inequality Hypothesis and the Rise of an Elite in the Cape Colony Fourie, Johan, von Fintel, Dieter 1663-1773 October, 2010
Income inequality in central Spain, 1690-1800 Caballero 1690-1800 October, 2010
Violent Conflict and Inequality Bircan, Brück, Vothknecht 1960-2005 May, 2010